492 Area Code
- A telephone numbering plan is a type of numbering scheme used in telecommunications to allocate telephone numbers to subscribers and to route telephone calls in a telephone network. A closed numbering plan, such as found in North America, imposes a fixed total length to numbers.
- a number usually of 3 digits assigned to a telephone area as in the United States and Canada
- The Chinese Telephone Code Plan is the way to group telephone numbers in the mainland of the People’s Republic of China. Land lines and mobile phones follow different systems: land lines use area codes, while mobile phones do not.
- A three-digit number that identifies one of the telephone service regions into which the US, Canada, and certain other countries are divided and that is dialed when calling from one area to another
- * Isaurian War: beginning of the revolt of the Isaurians against Anastasius I in Isauria.
- 400 (four hundred) is the natural number following 399 and preceding 401. (For the year 400 AD, see 400)
492 area code – New –
63 Nassau Street Building
The 5-story, Italianate style cast-iron front facade on the building at No. 63 Nassau Street was almost certainly produced c. 1857-59 by James Bogardus, the pioneer of cast iron architecture in America, making it an extremely rare extant example of his work – it is one of only five known Bogardus buildings in the U.S. (four in New York City). It is also one of the oldest surviving cast-ironfronted buildings in the city, and one of the very few located in Lower Manhattan, the oldest part of the city and its original financial center. This was a remodeling of a c. 1844 structure, occupied by Thomas Thomas, kitchen tinware manufacturer (on this site since 1827), and constructed by his son Augustus Thomas. Following the father’s death in 1856, the new iron facade was evidently commissioned as a speculative venture to capitalize on the commercial changes in the area around Maiden Lane, including Nassau Street, which was being transformed into a major jewelry district. Augustus Thomas was a business associate of William V. Curtis (owner of this property in 1856-60) in a silkgoods import firm which was then located in the Milhau Pharmacy Building, Bogardus’ first iron-front commission (1848) one block away at No. 183 Broadway.
Thomas and Curtis thus had first-hand knowledge of Bogardus’ work and cast-iron-fronted buildings. The attribution of this facade to Bogardus was originally made by Margot Gayle, a founder of the Friends of Cast Iron Architecture and co-author of the definitive monograph on Bogardus, based primarily on a “signature” characteristic known only to buildings definitely linked to Bogardus, namely bas-relief medallions of George Washington and Benjamin Franklin (only the two of Franklin survive today) found on the third story. This attribution is made more conclusive by the connection between Thomas, Curtis, and Bogardus’ first commission. The building was owned from 1860 to 1946 by Julien Gauton, a French-born bootmaker, and his heirs in the Carroll family. Many of the tenants, through the 1950s, have been associated with the watch and jewelry trades. The elegant and finely detailed design originally featured (the ground story was first altered in 1919) superimposed 2and 3-story arcades formed by elongated fluted Corinthian columns (most of the capitals’ leaves are now missing), rope moldings, arches with faceted keystones, and foliate spandrels. The facade is terminated by a widely-projecting, modillioned foliate cornice supported by a corbel table. It is an early and significant surviving commercial building dating from the 1840s-50s, when the jewelry district was first created in the vicinity of Maiden Lane.
DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS
James Bogardus and Cast-Iron-Fronted Buildings in New York City
Cast iron was used as an architectural material for entire facades of American commercial buildings in the mid-to-late-19 century, and was particularly popular in New York City. Cast iron, mostly imported from England, had been used for decorative and structural purposes in the early19century – one rare surviving cast-iron storefront at No. 506 Canal Street is believed to date from the construction of the building in 1826.Philadelphia architect John Haviland employed a veneer of cast-iron plates on the Miners Bank (1830-31), Pottsville, Pa. Later promoted and manufactured by pioneers James Bogardus and Daniel D. Badger, cast-iron facade parts were exported nationally for assembly on the site. Touted virtues of cast iron included its low cost, strength, durability, supposed fireproof nature, ease of assembly and of parts replacement, ability to provide a wide variety of inexpensive ornament, and paintable surfaces. The further economy of cast-iron construction lay in the possibilities inherent in prefabrication: identical elements and motifs could be continually repeated and, in fact, could be later reproduced on a building addition, thus extending the original design.
Born near Catskill, N.Y., James Bogardus (1800-1874) was apprenticed as a teenager to a local watchmaker and trained in the crafts of engraving and die-sinking. After a sojourn c. 1820-22 in Savannah, Ga., he returned to Catskill by 1823 and set up shop as a watchmaker and repairer. He also began to invent, and started
c. 1828 with a mantle clock. Around 1828-29, he moved to New York City, where he worked as an independent journeyman in a jewelry and watchmaking firm, but also pursued a career as an inventor. He received thirteen patents, his inventions including clocks, cotton spinning machinery, an iron grinding mill, a dry gas meter, a glass-pressing device, and engraving machines, including for banknotes. Bogardus went to London in 1836 in an attempt to obtain a British patent for his gas meter. He remained there for four years, working as an engraver, then embarked upon a tour of Paris and Italy where, as he later wrote, he conceived the idea in 184
Going to the Sun U-Valley B&W
Glacier National Park is located in the U.S. state of Montana, bordering the Canadian provinces of Alberta and British Columbia. Glacier National Park contains two mountain ranges, sometimes referred to as the southern extension of the Canadian Rockies mountain ranges, with over 130 named lakes, more than 1,000 different species of plants and hundreds of species of animals. This vast pristine ecosystem, spread across 1,584 mi? (4,101 km?), is the centerpiece of what has been referred to as the "Crown of the Continent Ecosystem", a region of protected land encompassing 16,000 mi? (44,000 km?). The famed Going-to-the-Sun Road, a National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark, traverses through the heart of the park and crosses the Continental Divide, allowing visitors breathtaking views of the rugged Lewis and Livingston mountain ranges, as well as dense forests, alpine tundra, waterfalls and two large lakes. Along with the Going-to-the-Sun Road, five historic hotels and chalets are listed as National Historic Landmarks, and a total of 350 locations are on the National Register of Historic Places.
Glacier National Park borders Waterton Lakes National Park in Canada—the two parks are known as the Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park, and were designated as the world’s first International Peace Park in 1932. Both parks were designated by the United Nations as Biosphere Reserves in 1976, and in 1995 as World Heritage sites.
The earliest occupants with lineage to current tribes were the Salish, Flathead, Shoshone and Cheyenne. The Blackfeet arrived around the beginning of the 18th century and soon dominated the eastern slopes of what later became the park, as well as the Great Plains immediately to the east. The park region provided the Blackfeet shelter from the harsh winter winds of the plains, and supplemented their traditional bison hunts with other game meat. Today, the Blackfeet Indian Reservation borders the park in the east, while the Flathead Indian Reservation is located west and south of the park. When the Blackfeet Reservation was first established in 1855 by the Lame Bull Treaty, it included the eastern area of the current park up to the Continental Divide. To the Blackfeet, the mountains of this area, especially Chief Mountain and the region in the southeast at Two Medicine, were considered the "Backbone of the World" and were frequented during vision quests. In 1895, Chief White Calf of the Blackfeet authorized the sale of the mountain area, some 800,000 acres (3,200 km?), to the U.S. government for $1.5 million. This established the current boundary between the park and the reservation.
While exploring the Marias River in 1806, the Lewis and Clark Expedition came within 50 miles (80 km) of the area that is now the park. A series of explorations after 1850 helped to shape the understanding of the area that later became the park. George Bird Grinnell came to the region in the late 1880s and was so inspired by the scenery that he spent the next two decades working to establish a national park. In 1901, Grinnell wrote a description of the region, in which he referred to it as the "Crown of the Continent", and his efforts to protect the land make him the premier contributor to this cause. A few years after Grinnell first visited, Henry L. Stimson and two companions, including a Blackfeet Indian, climbed the steep east face of Chief Mountain in 1892.
In 1891, the Great Northern Railway crossed the Continental Divide at Marias Pass (5,213 ft/1,589 m), which is along the southern boundary of the park. In an effort to stimulate use of the railroad, the Great Northern soon advertised the splendors of the region to the public. The company lobbied the United States Congress, and in 1900, the park was designated as a forest preserve. Under the forest designation mining was still allowed, but was not commercially successful. Meanwhile, proponents of protecting the region kept up their efforts, and in 1910, under the influence of George Bird Grinnell, Henry L. Stimson and the railroad, a bill was introduced into the U.S. Congress which redesignated the region from a forest reserve to a national park. This bill was signed into law by President William Howard Taft on May 11, 1910. From May until August, the forest reserve supervisor, Fremont Nathan Haines, managed the Park’s resources as the first acting superintendent. In August of 1910, William Logan was appointed the Park’s first superintendent.
The Great Northern Railway, under the supervision of president Louis W. Hill, built a number of hotels and chalets throughout the park in the 1910s to promote tourism. These buildings, constructed and operated by a Great Northern subsidiary called the Glacier Park Company, were modeled on Swiss architecture as part of Hill’s plan to portray Glacier as "America’s Switzerland". Vacationers commonly took pack trips on
492 area code